There are several indoor farming techniques or methods. You could do Aquaponics. It’s a very hands on type of farming that is increasing in popularity on a daily basis.
It requires more time and effort than other methods, but if you like to have fish as part of your regular diet it complements a garden nicely.
The reason it takes so much more time, is you have to keep a watchful eye on your fish. A good amount of filtering is necessary, so you need to test their water daily for pH, and ammonia in order to keep them healthy. They can usually handle a little yoyo action in the pH value of the water, but allow too much ammonia in their water, and it becomes difficult for them to breathe.
I remember being in L.A. once, at our family friends’ home on top of one of those hills that place is so famous for, trying to swim and play in the pool. We could only last about 30 minutes at a time before we had to go inside under the air conditioning because of the smog outside. Living on the hill, they were much closer to it than the folks walking around town. I would imagine this is how the fish feel when too much ammonia is in their water.
In all likelyhood, anything you grow indoors is going to be in a container, with the possible exception of a large greenhouse or hoop house. Container gardening, though, can entail using soil of some sort, or just water. You would have to mix in your nutrients, of course, but both methods have been proven successful.